Tuesday, February 12, 2013

Week 5 Featured Journal Entries

This week's featured entries come from Zoe Doss, Robbie Ludlum, Brian Snodgrass, and Jeff Uckotter.

Week 5 Journal Prompt

Profile a community-based environmental effort either in Cincinnati or your hometown. Use a combination of media, including (but not necessarily limited to) videos, photos, sketches, and links to news articles and relevant websites, to create a holistic snapshot of the problem the effort confronts and the effort’s mission, activities, accomplishments, and challenges. Supplement these materials with your own narrative as necessary to introduce and tie together each media element. Cite materials not your own as appropriate. This profile must contain at least three different types of media (e.g., photos, news articles, and a video; or news articles, organizational website screen shots, and photos) and have 2–6 paragraphs of narrative in total.

Zoe's Week 5 Journal Entry

Recycling in Cincinnati

I chose recycling to profile for my community effort. This movement is often driven by government, but local NGOs, businesses, the University of Cincinnati, and individual citizens are also actors. First, a quick look at the problem:

(my own photo)

Cincinnati, like any sizable city, produces a large amount of waste that could be diverted from landfills by recycling. The above photo of garbage bins was taken just off campus. Now a look at government involvement.

(my own photo)

Cincinnati Office of Environmental Quality 2013,

Cincinnati's Office of Environmental Quality has really made strides in recycling efforts. The new, bigger, wheeling bins allow people to recycle more more easily. But they did not come without cost; they carried a price tag of $3.8 million. A local news source called this "controversial" especially "when the city faces another $50 million deficit" (Prendergast 2010). The city is also starting to give rewards for recycling, just one of which free bus passes; shown in the screenshot from the city's website. The Office of Environmental Quality regularly distributes information about their initiatives (seen in my photo above). In 2010, 14343 tons were recycled, an increase of 1153 tons from the previous year; which of course not only reflects the effort of government but also of individuals (Cincinnati Office of Environmental Quality 2013).

Local organizations like Keep Cincinnati Beautiful and Green Umbrella are also involved. The stated goal of Green Umbrella's Waste Reduction Action Team is to "transition to 'zero waste'" (Green Umbrella 2013). The following video shows Keep Cincinnati Beautiful's Sustainability in Action initiative, which goes into local schools to do environmental education. The following video (most relevant from about 1:30-3:30 as it is a bit lengthy) demonstrates some of their successes; overall they diverted about 80 tons of waste from landfills.

Keep Cincinnati Beautiful 2012, http://keepcincinnatibeautiful.org/environmental-education/sustainability-in-action/.

A good example of local businesses' involvement was last year's America Recycles event. Many difficult-to-recycle items were accepted at Whole Foods, and 2TRG and the Cincinnati Zoo were also partners, as described in this flyer:

Green Umbrella 2012, http://greenumbrella.org/event/america-recycles-day-one-stop-drop.

The University also has the All Recycling program, as directed by UC sustainability:

(my own photo)

Overall, despite barriers such as resources, recycling efforts in Cincinnati seem to be making headway. Framework provided the Office of Environmental Quality and strong support from Keep Cincinnati Beautiful have allowed businesses and individuals good opportunities to take part in recycling and reducing the city's contribution to landfills.


City of Cincinnati Office of Environmental Quality. “About The Recyling Program.” 2013.

City of Cincinnati Office of Environmental Quality. “Recycle Today, Ride Free Tomorrow.” Accessed February 8, 2013.http://www.cincinnati-oh.gov/recycling/news/recycle-today-ride-free-tomorrow/
Green Umbrella. “Waste Reduction Team.” Accessed February 8, 2013.http://greenumbrella.org/action-teams/waste-reduction
Keep Cincinnati Beautiful. “Sustainability in Action,” May 29, 2012. Accessed February 8, 2013.http://keepcincinnatibeautiful.org/environmental-education/sustainability-in-action/
Prendergast, Jane. “Giant recycling carts on way.” Cincinnati.com, August 30, 2010. Accessed February 8, 2013.http://news.cincinnati.com/article/20100830/NEWS0108/8310326/Giant-recycling-carts-way

Robbie's Week 5 Journal Entry

Community Supported Agriculuture vs. Conventional Farming Techniques

This week, I’d like to focus on Community Supported Agriculture or CSA’s. Essentially in a CSA, you have your own farmer who produces food locally and organically. You buy a share of the produce that he will grow for the season with an up-front payment. If it is a bad season, you share the risks with the farmer. If it is a good season, then you share the bounty. Either way, you know that come next season, you’re still going to have to eat and this creates a sustainable reliance upon the land. It forms a relationship with your grower. And the land, plants and people benefit from these bonds. 

I’d like to introduce a CSA gardener. Small-business owner, Dennis Renck just completed his first season as a CSA gardener. He also was willing to fill out a questionnaire I sent him and although I didn’t get to film him (due to technical difficulties) I’d still like to thank him for his time he spent answering questions on what it is like starting a CSA from the ground up.

>How would you describe a CSA to someone who has never heard of it?

A CSA is a form of an alternative food distribution network and consists of a community of individuals (Food citizens) who pledge support to a gardening operation where as the growers and citizens share the risks and benefits of food production. CSA's usually consist of a system of weekly delivery or pick-up of vegetables/ fruits. This direct relationship allows the gardener to focus on the production of healthy foods for a local community, using sustainable methods. This kind of mutually beneficial arrangement entails a greater degree of involvement of citizens and other stakeholders than usual — resulting in a stronger "consumer-producer" relationship. CSA theory purports that the more a gardening operation embraces sustainable, whole-garden, whole-budget support, the more it can focus on quality and reduce the risk of food waste or financial loss.
and / or Garden Fare CSA (Dennis’s Pet Project) is an alternative food distribution network. The food is grown seasonally, locally on site in a series of evolving gardens. This is all done organically. We are planning perennial polycultures to supplement our annual seeds, which are saved year to year. In short, we grow and nurture edible food.

> Why did you choose to be a farmer and start a CSA?
It took the perfect storm of circumstances and events to bring Garden Fare CSA to fruition. Realizing that an abundance and richness of resources existed on hand at Renck's Garden Center helped spur the project. Additional factors included: underutilized space, rich soil in texture and composition, temperate climate, and the most precious resource of them all.... well water from the glorious underground river that is the Great Miami Aquifer. Combining this with years of grass roots networking, horticultural knowledge, and a yearning for all things unconventional, GFCSA seemed realistic to undertake. 

In essence, Garden Fare CSA is the most subversive undertaking I've ever accomplished. Every dollar spent directly at farmers markets, CSA's, and other alternative network takes money away from the global giants and titans of industry. Voting with our dollars, is the most direct form of democracy available today. Actively participating in local projects can help foster a sense of community while eating seasonally celebrates place and strengthens your very identity. There is a great sense of empowerment from growing your own food from garden to table. Ultimately, this project has the potential for the development of minds and emotions of individuals, and the enrichment and health of communities

>Why do you choose to use organic methods of growing rather than conventional methods?

Its Romantic. Its not radical or new. Its old school. Its the way gardening has been done for thousands of years. This was the only way to garden before the 1940's(ish). Plus, when done within the framework of permaculture, all of your inputs are surrounding you. Solutions abound !

Basically all i feel that's being done is real gardening. Gardeners practice horticulture. Horticulture is one of the most varied and important disciplines known to civilization. It’s also one of the most little understood and overlooked. Its strength lies in diversity and maturity. Essentially horticulture is the science, art, technology, and business involved in intensive plant cultivation for human use. Primarily it is an art, but it is intimately connected with science at every point. Horticulture happens when people are in intimate, intensive contact with plants. It is the interface between people and plants. Thus, life enriching. See, it is kinda romantic !!

> What kind of problems does your CSA address for you and your consumers?

Freshness is one. Locally sourced foods are very popular also, due to obvious reasons. These foods aren't drenched in fossil fuels. They don't, come 1500 miles refrigerated the entire way. They weren't sprayed with herbicides, pesticides, and/or fungicides. This is what actual food looks like.

> What are your difficulties with running a CSA?

Capital Operating Funds. The CSA is subsided currently by my other business which is a garden center and landscaping firm. The CSA itself is not profitable enough to stand by itself…yet. The ever changing weather patterns in SW Ohio are always fun; we had the wettest spring in history in 2011, to the driest and hottest year in history in 2012, you cannot plan on those sorts of extremes.

> Why do you think people choose to belong to a CSA?

The food is great, its diverse, its seasonal, and its grown locally. The food-citizens know me and ask me questions about the food. It fosters a nice sense of community as well. Some folks are just interested in participating in unconventional projects. You really do vote with your dollars now, and its the best way to say you are fed up with the broken industrial food chain.

BigAg dictates monoculture, and is EXTREMELY fossil fuel dependant. Laced with synthetic fertilizer, pesticides, and herbicides, inedible commodities are open for trade on the international market. Chemical run off is a byproduct of industrial agricultural techniques, leaching into streams, rivers, and oceans which is polluting our earth’s water supply. Government subsides allow US farms to flood other nations with US grown corn, soy, and sugar at prices below cost of production. This has detrimental affects on indigenous cultures’ farming practices, lifestyle, and quality of living. People want something else. CSA can provide that.

> What kind of societal problems does being a local, organic farmer face or confront?

First, time constraints. Working the gardens, delivering, and managing volunteers and working is demanding. When the season breaks, i value my time off. Second, lack of a marketing and advertising budget. You cannot get your name out there the way the big boys do. You really have to consider where every dollar goes. I try to focus on high impact, high conceptual, but low $ input projects. Huglkur Piles and the pallet projects are a perfect example of this. These alternative DIY projects would have been laughed at in say 2006 or ‘07 but now they are catching on. People say, ‘Hey, that’s really cool.’ Recycling and up-cycling are hip now.

> What are some of your activities?

They almost seem innumerable. (HA) specific to GFCSA - planning: seed varieties, crop rotation schedules, permaculture design (a work in progress no less) as well as weeding, planting, watering, harvesting/picking, washing, marketing, selling, volunteer coordination, sorting and delivering shares.
Here are a few photos of Dennis's CSA:

Raised Beds with different annuals planted beside each other.

Corn, Pole beans, and squash.  Also known as the Three Sisters

Dennis Renck's CSA Logo

I’d like to share with you an interview I did with Mike Collins, my CSA farmer. He has been a farmer for 7 or 8 years and gives an honest account of why we don’t have local farmers any longer. Like most farmers, Farmer Mike simply tells it how it is. I’m very grateful to him to perform the interview even after a long day of dropping off CSA parcels on members’ porches for his Winter CSA and stopping by a Farmer’s Market as well. 

Now, I’d like to introduce Monsanto. Monsanto is a multi-national industrial farming corporation.

They are what people like Dennis and Mike are essentially fighting against - morally and financially. Here is a snipet from their corporate brochure:   

As you have read, Monsanto is devoted to producing more, conserving more, and improving lives. This is exactly what the world needs. But Monsanto isn’t quite giving the full story. Below are links to news articles which convey the truth of what Monsanto’s work actually yields versus what their corporate brochure tell us. 

The first paragraph of this article is quite enough. It tells how Monsanto has been suing farmers in numerous states which is a very frightening thing and sends a message to other farmers. 


There’s also this telling quote as well, “Monsanto should not have to vouchsafe the safety of biotech food. Our interest is in selling as much of it as possible. Assuring its safety is the FDA's job." — Phil Angell, Monsanto's Director of Corporate Communications. New York Times, October 25, 1998. If Farmer Mike or Dennis were to say that about their vegetables and produce, would that be acceptable?

This article does a good job of looking at the world’s point of view towards GM seeds and the negative and far reaching effects that companies like Monsanto are having all around the globe. Many people from many countries are suffering from this giant corporation imposing itself upon these people who are wary of genetically modified organisms:


Overall, a lot of our produce comes from all over the world. Monsanto and other companies like that profit from this global scale and whether we know it or not, we, as people, our farmers, and our land suffer. Switching from purchasing our food away from globalization and back to our region will keep more money in the pockets of the people that we know, will create bonds between consumers, the people they buy their food from, and the land, and will bring back biodiversity.
If you'd like to learn more about either Martin Hill Farms run by Farmer Mike or Renck's Garden Center and Garden Fare CSA run by Dennis Renck, please feel free to check out their websites.

Photos and logo courtesy of Renck's Garden Center Facebook page. https://www.facebook.com/renck1?ref=ts&fref=ts Current as of 8Feb2013

Brian's Week 5 Journal Entry

For this specific journal blog I decided to discuss how Cincinnati celebrates Earth Day. I used www.CincinnatiEarthDay.com and an article online from channel 9 WCPO news as references. From the Cincinnati Earth Day website I used pictures, text, and a video to profile the community-based environmental effort. On Saturday, April 20, 2013, from 12:00 noon until 5:00 pm, Cincinnati will celebrate Earth Day at Sawyer Point which is located downtown.  The organization holds a logo contest for 7th-12th graders who live in the Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky region. The winner receives over $100 dollars in prizes, and their logo will appear on websites and social media. These “incentives” are a great way to get younger kids involved in the celebration of Earth.  

2012 GCEC Logo Contest Winner:  Kerry Ulm of St. Ursula Academy. (Cincinnati Earth Day)
Sponsors for Cincinnati's Earth Day.  Advocate groups (not depicited in this photo): Green Cincinnati Education Advocacy, Geilger, Green Bean Delivery, and Gilkey Window Company. (Cincinnati Earth Day)

Earth Day attracts many sponsors.  The two main hosts for Earth Day in Cincinnati are the EPA and Greater Cincinnati Earth Coalition.  Global conservationists such as Walmart, Habitat Defenders: Toyota and Duke Energy, Supporters: Sierra Club and Natorp’s, and advocate groups all participate in Earth Day.  The mission satement of the main host is:  
The Greater Cincinnati Earth Coalition is a community of not-for-profit organizations, businesses, government agencies, and individuals from the Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana tri-state region who work cooperatively and actively to promote the beauty and environmental quality of the tri-state area (Cincinnati Earth Day).  Celebrating Earth Day and demonstrating the important concepts of preservation, is key for a healthy city. 
This video of  Cincinnati Earth Day 2011 is an excellent example of the things that take place.  There are many things for children.  In addition, there are demos that relate to the environment/pollution and also interactive learning exercises.      

Channel 9 news wrote a story regarding the 2012 Earth Day at Sawyer Point.  According to Channel 9, “There will also be an environmental awards presentation recognizing local citizens and businesses who's efforts on behalf of the environment make Greater Cincinnati a beautiful place to live”(Channel 9 WCPO News).  The article depicts the who’s, what’s, when, and where Earth Day 2012 will be.    

Screenshot of the itinerary for the 2012 Cincinnati Earth Day.  Source: Channel 9 WCPO News

Works Cited

"Cincinnati Earth Day," accessed February 8, 2013, http://cincinnatiearthday.com/index.html

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAfs9yqbHOc. cincyearthday "Earth Day at Sawyer Point, Cincinnati, Ohio." April 15, 2011. Web February 6, 2013.

"Channel 9 WCPO News," Posted April 19, 2012. accessed February 8, 2013, http://www.wcpo.com/dpp/news/region_central_cincinnati/downtown/cincinnati-earth-day-celebration-kicks-off-at-sawyer-point

Jeff's Week 5 Journal Entry

Little Miami River

I am highlighting a natural resource that is near and dear to my heart, the Little Miami River.  At 105 miles in length and as a tributary of the Ohio River, the Little Miami is a National Scenic River that runs through five southwest Ohio counties.  Also, at some points, it is the border between Hamilton and Clermont Counties.  According to Wikipedia, while its watershed is not massive, it is rather formidable, “The Little Miami River is a tributary of the Ohio River. It is part of a watershed that drains a 1,757 square miles (4,550 km2) area in 11 southwestern Ohio counties: Clark, Montgomery, Madison, Greene, Warren, Butler, Clinton, Clermont, Brown, and Highland (Wikipedia, 2013).” As a National Scenic River designation, the river is truly majestic; this is why I like it.  During the summer months, one of my favorite past-times is using the river for recreation: fishing, kayaking, swimming, and even rock hunting. 

For my father and I, a favorite activity of ours is to go rock hunting for use in gardens.  Since the river contains bountiful and beautiful (reds, blues, and oranges) examples of granite, it makes it a wonderful place to search and harvest the (coolest) pieces of granite for personal use.  These “river jacks” are lucrative in the horticulture field, so why pay for them when you can get them for free?  Plus we have gone to the extraneous efforts of extracting small granite boulders out of the river too, generally weighing between 100 and 200 lbs.  (FYI Rolling a 200lb granite boulder up a twenty foot embankment in the summer heat is not fun.)  In turn, each and every granite rock in my parent’s yard has been handpicked out of the Little Miami River. 

Of course, granite is not indigenous to this part of the United States, it originates from Canada and calls the Little Miami home since it was Illinoian glacier a couple of years ago that brought it here.   When paying attention to river cycles, following each major rain event, the rock bars that we frequent for the rocks,  tend to replenish their stock of granite rocks.  To me, this interesting because what is the river also doing?  Aside from rocks, It is also naturally recirculating the trash found within the river.  Yes, this notion of rock hunting sounds like a nerdy hobby, but you would be amazed by the aesthetically-pleasing rocks (and trash) one finds. (Yes, I do know it is probably against the rules to extract rocks from a National Scenic River, but we take a negligible amount since the river is full of rocks.  Plus, I feel this is interesting to write on and thus, I hope you do not turn me into the authorities.)

But this paper isn’t about the interesting rocks and fossils that my dad and I find over the course of any given summer.  The basis of this paper is meant to document the trash that we find that accompanies the rocks.  A big theme of this effort to clean rivers is the fact that literally anything can be present in or around the water source.  One of my biggest fears, when rock hunting through our various rock bar locations, is that of uncovering human remains.  Since this is a river, I guess that is not out of the question since it can be dangerous.  Luckily we have not found any humans remains, but I have encountered two cases of decomposing deer carcasses.  When one is nature, there is that certain decomposing scent that is unmistakable, yet I can not describe it; and so when one encounters it, its a surefire sign of what is around you.  Something dead.  Due to the stench, upon finding the source, to my relief, the remains have never been of human origin, but deer.  Poor deer.  

But other than this, we find all sorts of things while at the river from massive tractor tires, to railroad ties, to bottles, to car hubcaps, to grills in which one eats food from.  Anything.  We once even found an entire rusted-out car door.  One of the favorite finds at the Little Miami has to be the brick.  Since a lot of decrepit rust-belt era structures follow the meandering river, from a time when development depended on water sources, it is fairly common to come across these porous man-made rocks. What I always find fascinating is that these bricks are always rounded smooth, not square from their original form.  So, upon further review of these man- made objects, I always tend to stand there and ponder the life and existence of these objects.  I ponder if these bricks could have been in the river for 100 years?  Then, for example the grill, I then wonder why in the hell are these objects are in a National Scenic River?  Why would someone deposit them here when they can easily throw them in a dumpster?  Generally, if the object is heavy enough (and metal), I’ll simply rid the object from the river’s bank and throw it into the river channel, to let the river reclaim the object, in hopes that it’ll rust out.  This is what we did with the car door and the grill.  If not, I tend to clean up trash on my own because I care.

Now that I have set up this topic with some experiences of mine, I would like to highlight a much more concerted effort to clean up the river.  It is important to clean up a National Scenic River due to its beauty, the fact that it is a National Scenic River, its ecological services, and its recreational outlets.  While there are a number of groups that have spear-headed this issue of river cleaning, one group that I would like to highlight is The Little Miami River Kleeners who also go by the “River Keepers” in some publications.  While this is a younger action-group, it does benefit river, by holding a river sweep each summer.  They extract a large amount of trash out of the river each summer.

1. In doing some general research on Little Miami River cleanup, a July, 2011 article via Katherine Ullmer of the Dayton Daily News highlighted The River Keepers activities.  This article initially sparked my awareness of this group.  This particular clean-up was a two day event. Basically, their mission was cut and dry, patrol the river through the transportation mode of canoe, and eliminate trash.  “The two-day Little Miami River cleanup July 9 and 10 removed an estimated 17,000 to 20,000 pounds of trash from the river, everything from 350 old tires to a 300-pound, vintage, fluted steel or cast iron DP&L street light pole, said Steve Knopp of Sugarcreek Twp., co-leader of the Little Miami River Keepers.”  According to Ullmer, “He and former Ohio first lady Hope Taft helped organize the two-day, two-part 105-mile river cleanup, which included around 500 volunteers and numerous area conservation groups, such as Little Miami Inc. (in charge of the southern half) and Rivers Unlimited (Ullmer,2013).”  As with the case with river cleanups or for anything in life in general, river clean-ups are like a box of chocolates, you never know what you’re going to get.  This is the common theme when cleaning up such a obscure landscape, such as a river.  There is no telling what could be in that river, and thus literally anything can be.  As highlighted in this article, it was interesting that multiple organizations partnered up to accomplish the mission of cleaning the river.  As with any large class, such as river cleanups, the more people helping, the better.

2. Another slant in working to create a holistic snapshot of the problem the effort confronts and the effort’s mission is to actually hear from the organization’s brass and hear their take on the issue.  This audio clip is actually derived from a radio program in the NPR Network, 91.3 WYSO: Public Radio for the Little Miami.  This clip can be found here: http://www.wyso.org/term/little-miami-river-keepers.  

In this piece, from :10 to 7:00, the host, Jerry Kenney, interviews leaders of the Little Miami River Keepers, who at the time, were competing to receive grant money in a contest sponsored by Tom's of Maine.  This Tom’s of Maine “50 States for Good” contest was a national initiative to support and stimulate grassroots community projects.  Obviously they competed against many other organizations from around the country (Kenney, 2011).  Incidentally in 2011, they failed to win this grant worth $50,000.  But, it was interesting to hear the leaders speak on their efforts because it seems like this effort has grown from 60 members at inception to in the 100’s in 2011 (Kenney, 2011).  Upon listening to this program, it seems as if a lot of their incentives for working on this project aligned with a lot of my beliefs about river clean up.  Clearly this action group is interested in cleaning up the Little Miami River due to the fact that it is an asset to this region.  It’s a premier scenic river.  In the interview, around the 4:20 mark, it was fascinating to hear about some of the items that have been extracted from the river and the rationale or lack-there-of for someone to dump such items in the river (Kenney, 2011).  As noted in the prior piece, it seems as if former Ohio First Lady, Hope Taft, is a major player in this effort.

3. The last angle that I am choosing to pursue is the actual River Keepers webpage, lmriverkleeners.org.  This source interested me due to the information that this site presented.  The source boasts a wonderful Flickr photo collection of past clean-ups (listed below), results from the 2012 clean-up, and information about the incoming 2013 clean-up.

The results on the 2012 clean-up were rather fascinating.  For some reason, this organization did not list the results of an entire river sweep, but you get the drift.  According to the River Kleeners site, “175 volunteers hit the Little Miami River and its banks in Clark and Greene Counties on Saturday morning of June 23rd, 2012, and removed ¾ ton of trash (River Kleeners, 2013).” According to the organization, such unusual items recovered included: 3 rolls of carpet, vacuum cleaner, typewriter, desk telephone, ringer for an old fashioned washing machine, two car doorspvc pipealong with normal trash such as bottles, cans, bags, etc (River Kleeners, 2013).  This sounds about right considering anything can be found in a river.   Interestingly enough, the organization also reports, “Greene County Environmental Services received 78 tires of various kinds and sizes, including 4 car or light truck tires with rims and 71 without rims, 1 tractor tire on rim and one very old one without a rim and 2 semi-truck tires with-out rims. The cost or recycling these tires and generously donated by the EPA was $159.50 (River Kleeners, 2013).”

Picture of the Little Miami cleanup cannot be used without permission.  But, they can be viewed at the River Kleeners Flickr page.  Some interesting images.  www.flickr.com//photos/81981211@N08/show/

In the end, cleaning up a river proves to be a monumental task.  It relies on man-power to accomplish the task.  Consequently, organizations like the River Kleeners must rely on volunteers to accomplish the mission.  As for incentives for the volunteers, I believe that they are real and tangible because cleaning up something like a river is significant.  People want to feel like they are helping the environment and making a difference, and there is no better way of accomplishing this like picking up trash or tires out of a National Scenic River.  The idea of picking up trash out of a National Scenic River is one that is powerful since it makes one feel as if they are really making a difference.  It’s a quantifiable level of activism since it is inconspicuous.  I contend that a river with less trash in it is relevant to even environmentally-apathetic Americans due to the image it presents.   Who wants a trash filled river?

Works cited:

Wikipedia. "Little Miami River." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 2013. Web. 08 Feb. 2013.

Ullmer, Katherine. "Little Miami River Cleanup." Dayton, Ohio, News and Information. N.p., 25 June 2011. Web. 08 Feb. 2013.

Kenney, Jerry. "Tagged: Little Miami River Keepers." Little Miami River Keepers. WYSO, 5 Sept. 2011. Web. 08 Feb. 2013.

LM River Kleeners.org. "2012 Little Miami Clean Sweep - Little Miami River Kleeners." Little Miami River Kleeners. N.p., 2013. Web. 08 Feb. 2013.

LM River Kleeners.org. "Little Miami River Kleener's Photos." Flickr. Yahoo!, 2012. Web. 08 Feb. 2013. <http://www.flickr.com//photos/81981211@N08/show/>.

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